What is nursing research paper?

What is nursing reasearch paper? what is the importance and purpose of nursing reseach paper?

What is nursing research paper?


Problems encountered in the practice of nursing are widely varied, important to the health care system, and deserving of a national research effort. Research on these problems, which cover issues ranging from methods to alleviate anxiety and pain to improving the prospects for high-risk infants, is conducted mainly by nurses with doctoral degrees in biomedical and behavioural fields. There were about 2,500 such individuals in 1980 but only 7 percent reported research as a major activity. The numbers are increasing, but a solid core of well-trained investigators has not yet been developed to address all nursing research issues.



The goal of nursing research is to facilitate the development of clinical nursing interventions which will improve health outcomes and contribute to the optimal delivery of care. To this end, according to the American Nurses’ Association, nursing research “develops knowledge about health and the promotion of health over the full life span, care of persons with health problems and disabilities, and nursing actions to enhance the ability of individuals to respond effectively to actual or potential health problems. So defined, nursing research “complements biomedical research, which is primarily concerned with causes and treatments of disease.



The scope of nursing research is very broad, including, for example:

  • studies to reduce the complications of hospitalization and surgery (such as respiratory or circulatory problems) and factors that negatively influence recovery
  • studies to improve the prospects for high risk infants and their parents (on prematurity, stress-induced complications in childbirth, child abuse, and developmental disabilities, for instance)
  • studies of methods to alleviate anxiety, stress, and pain associated with illness or disability
  • studies to facilitate the utilization of new technological developments in patient care (such as those concerned with nasogastric tube feeding of hospital patients and techniques for recovery and maintenance of eating and grasping abilities following stroke),

The Division of Nursing of the Bureau of Health Professions, Health Resources and Services Administration (DHHS) classifies nursing research into six categories: “fundamental,” nursing practice, nursing profession, delivery of nursing services, nursing education, and utilization. Although research in all these categories is likely to have an impact on health outcomes or improved patient care, those with the most direct impact are fundamental and nursing practice research, which jointly accounted for the bulk of all funded studies as of the end of FY 1981 (HRSA, 1983).

The distinction between fundamental and nursing practice research is important and is regarded both by the Division of Nursing and by the nursing profession generally as central to an understanding of the nature and scope of nursing research. Fundamental research is research which addresses or focuses on the biological and/or behavioural functioning of human beings, their environments, and their social systems. It constitutes the science base from which nursing or other clinical practice theories can be developed and tested. The findings and theories developed through fundamental research constitute the pool of knowledge and theories which health practitioners and researchers of various types, including nurses, can draw upon to develop clinical intervention strategies and/or to test the effectiveness and efficiency of different practice methods. Examples of fundamental biological and/or behavioural research deemed relevant to the field of nursing and funded by the Division of Nursing include studies on the responses of children to pain, the perceptions of the elderly as concerns their physical functioning and health care needs, the effects of radiotherapy on cancer patients, and the effects of caffeine on pregnancy outcomes.

Nursing practice research, on the other hand, specifically addresses issues related to the practice of nursing as a profession— with nursing interventions, procedures, techniques, and/or methods of patient care being the focus of inquiry. Research designs used in practice research are typically experimental, explicitly postulating and testing the linkages between one or more nursing interventions, procedures, or processes and patient outcomes in controlled experiments. The processes, procedures, techniques, or interventions which are “tested” may be technical, physical, verbal, cognitive, psychosocial, and/or interpersonal. Practice research funded by the Division of Nursing has included studies on endotracheal aspiration of critically ill patients, nurse attention to psychological distress among medical-surgical patients, the effect of nurse empathy on patients, the stress of radiation treatment for cancer patients, and the effectiveness of prenatal care provided to Navajo women, among many others.



While nursing research ultimately aims at improving patient care for persons with existing health impairments and reducing or preventing health-related problems for others, some nursing research explicitly addresses, or has implications for, the relative costs of different types of interventions, procedures, settings, and providers of care—that is, for cost-effective patient care. For example, reviews a number of studies conducted over the past 10 years which demonstrate that innovations in nursing practice and alternative methods of service delivery, treatment, and care can provide equivalent or superior patient outcomes at cost savings over more traditional or usual methods. Reducing hospital length of stay, preventing rehospitalization, reducing the number of outpatient visits, and reducing absenteeism have been among the cost savings demonstrated by some of these studies. Long- or short-term nursing intervention with mothers having a history of child abuse, for example, was found to result in a lower rate of child rehospitalization due to parental abuse or neglect; the addition of a nurse practitioner to a small industrial company’s health service was found to reduce employee time lost from work; and patient education programs and educational counselling of patients with a variety of surgical or medical problems have been found to reduce hospital length of stay, hospital readmission rates, the number of outpatient visits, and so forth, compared to control groups not receiving such nursing interventions.

Home care as an alternative to hospitalization was the focus of a number of the studies Fagin reviewed, and all indicated potential or actual savings of home care over hospitalization. For example, training patients to administer intravenous antibiotics at home reduced hospitalization time and treatment expense. Likewise, the mean cost of home care for children dying of cancer with care coordinated by nurses and provided by parents (and physicians serving as consultants) was 18 times less expensive than that provided in a hospital setting for similar children.



The Commission on Nursing Research of the American Nurses’ Association suggests an agenda for the 1980s that would give priority to research that will generate knowledge “to guide practice” in the following broad areas:

· promoting health and well-being, as well as competency for personal care and personal health, among all age groups (including identification of the determinants of wellness and health functioning in individuals and families)

· decreasing the negative impact of health problems on coping abilities, productivity, and life satisfaction of individuals and families

· designing and developing cost-effective health care systems in meeting the nursing needs of the population

· ensuring that the nursing care needs of “vulnerable groups” (including but not limited to racial and ethnic minorities and underserved populations, such as the elderly, the mentally ill, and the poor) are met (Nursing Research, 1980).



Nursing research is conducted by investigators trained in numerous disciplines, including general medicine, various medical specialties, various branches of biomedical research, and the behavioural sciences. This diffusion of investigators makes it hard to accurately estimate the number of investigators performing nursing research. However, most nursing research funded by the Division of Nursing, HRSA, is being conducted by nurses, of whom the vast majority have doctorates in nursing or other disciplines. This report therefore focuses on the supply of nurses with doctorates.

The evolution of nursing from a non-academic discipline relying on apprentice-type training to a recognized profession with its own academic credentials and body of research has been slow, and is still progressing. Until the early 1970s the majority of new Registered Nurses (RNs) were trained in hospital-based nursing schools that conferred diplomas and prepared students for Registered Nurse licensure. By 1981 that mode of preparation had fallen to less than 20 percent. Almost half of newly licensed RNs in 1981 were prepared in associate degree programs (usually in community colleges) and one-third were prepared in baccalaureate programs in 4-year colleges and universities. Although diploma prepared RNs are declining both as a proportion of new RNs and in absolute numbers, in 1980 they still represented half the supply of employed RNs. Nurses trained in associate degree programs represented 20 percent and RNs with baccalaureate or higher degrees represented 29 percent. This last group, numbering 364,400 nurses, is the actual and potential pool of nurse researchers since graduates of diploma and associate degree programs are not eligible for advanced degrees unless they upgrade their educational level.

Number of Nurses with Doctorate Degrees

The most comprehensive and most recent study of nurses with doctoral degrees was conducted by the American Nurses’ Association (1981). The study estimated that approximately 2,500 (0.15 percent of 1.66 million licensed RNs) held doctoral degrees in 1980. However, although the number is still relatively small, it is increasing rapidly. Between 1963 and 1969 only about 30 nurses earned doctorates each year Today that figure is closer to 150.

There has also been a radical change in the education of nurses with doctorates. The ANA study identified 17 different doctoral degrees obtained by nurses. Up to 1965 the most frequently earned degree was the Ed.D., which was succeeded by the Ph.D. in the 1970s. The professional nursing degree (DNS) was first awarded in the 1960s and has become increasingly represented in new doctoral degrees . The increase in nursing doctoral degrees has been paralleled by an increase in the number of doctoral programs in nursing education departments—22 in 1981–82 compared to 2 in 1959–60 (NLN, 1983).

Time Spent in Research

However, not all nurses with doctorates are engaged in research activities shows that 75 percent of nurses with doctorates are employed in schools of nursing (largely those that offer baccalaureate and higher degrees). Not surprisingly, the amount of time spent in research varies according to the type and place of employment, but overall fewer than 7 percent of the nurses surveyed reported research as a major function also shows that the nurses employed in nursing schools spend, on average, less time on research than nurses in some other settings—for example, other health professional schools. Since most nurses with doctorates work in schools of nursing, this is of concern to those attempting to generate increased nursing research.

In 1970, an evaluation of a program designed to encourage faculty research noted that deans and directors of programs found it difficult to free faculty for research, and questioned how much could be expected from faculty in terms of a combined teaching and research load (Abdellah, 1970).

A comment of this sort indicates that research activity may have been regarded as a secondary activity for faculty in nursing schools. In the intervening decade, however, there has been a radical change. More recent data suggest that the expansion of nursing education has increased the demand for doctorally prepared faculty. A survey of 58 graduate nursing programs in 40 states found a need for 1,080 faculty with doctorates in the next 5 years. The survey found that the greatest need was for faculty with preparation that emphasized research and nursing theory development .

The Institute of Medicine in 1983 estimated that 5,800 nurses with doctorates would be working by the end of 1990–3,000 with doctorates from nursing programs and 2,800 with doctorates in other fields . This represents an increase of 2,800 nurses with doctorates from the 1980 estimate of 3,000—probably just enough to fill the demand in the 40 states mentioned earlier, but far less than the 1990 projection of need for 14,000 doctorally prepared nurses made by the Health Resources and Services Administration, Division of Nursing . The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services based its projections of the need for doctorally prepared nurses on the judgment-of-need criteria developed by the Western Interstate Commission on Higher Education. A national panel of expert consultants was convened to establish criteria for staffing patterns and the educational preparation of RNs to meet service needs in different health care settings (hospitals, nursing homes, home care, etc.) and in units within those settings (E.R., newborn units, etc.). If this estimate of demand is even approximately accurate, nurses with doctorates should have no problem finding employment for the next decade at least.

The Infrastructure for Research

A simple enumeration of the number of people qualified to conduct research and the amount of time spent in that activity does not encompass all the important variables that affect the amount of research being conducted. One of these is research funding, which will be discussed later. Another, which is a prerequisite for research, can be described as the infrastructure—the elements that need to be in place before a research area can become established and grow. For nursing research some of the infrastructure is still in the process of development. In 1977 this Committee noted that “even today there are less than 2,000 registered nurses who have completed doctoral education, scarely more than an average of one doctorally trained nurse for each school of nursing in the United States” By 1980 only 7 percent of full-time nurse-faculty held doctoral degrees . This compares unfavorably with other disciplines. Well over 50 percent of the faculty of 20 schools of public health held doctorates and more than 90 percent of faculty held doctorates in schools offering doctoral and other degrees in departments of psychology, physical sciences, biological sciences, mathematical and social sciences, and engineering .

The relative scarcity of doctorally prepared faculty in nursing schools is likely to have several effects. First, nurses with new doctorates can find ready employment in schools of nursing and are less likely to pursue pure research careers where funding is hard to obtain. Second, as mentioned earlier, nursing school faculty with doctorates are likely to be heavily engaged in teaching and administration at the expense of research, and third, nurses being educated by faculty who do not have the research degree and are not primarily engaged in research do not have role models who might lead them to research careers. Finally, as this Committee noted in 1981, the rapid growth of doctoral training programs (which the data suggest has outstripped the growth in supply of doctorally prepared faculty) has resulted in programs of less than optimal quality (NRC, 1981). In short, nursing research still lacks the solid core of research trained and oriented teachers that are vital to any area of research.

Funds for Nursing Research

The Division of Nursing, HRSA, provided about $5 million annually in funds targeted to nursing research. In 1982 this dropped to close to $3.5 million. The Institute of Medicine in its 1983 study said that this “is not a level of visibility and scientific prestige to encourage scientifically oriented RNs to pursue careers devoted to research… .” The same report notes that “A substantial share of the health care dollar is expended on direct nursing care…” and that “Despite the fact that nurses represent the largest single group of professionals in the providing of health services to the people of this country, there is a remarkable dearth of research in nursing practice” . In a stronger statement the study says that “Research in nursing has been handicapped by inadequate levels of support” and contrasts the $5 million annually for nursing research with $1.7 billion for biomedical research between 1976 and 1981, and with dental research which receives five times as much as nursing research . The study committee suggests that “an increase on the order of $5 million per year for research could have a substantial impact in stimulating growth of capacity for research on nursing-related matter.

Other federal money is available for nursing research through the National Institutes of Health, the National Institute of Mental Health, the National Center for Health Services Research, the National Science Foundation, and other agencies. How much these agencies spend for nursing research is not clear. The National Institutes of Health in 1982 made awards worth roughly $2.8 million for projects that were defined as having nursing as a primary component. However, many of these were for training or curriculum development rather than research into nursing practice, and in many cases the abstracts of projects indicated only tangential nursing interest (National Institutes of Health, 1983).

Other sources of funds include the American Nurses’ Foundation, which makes small (up to $2,100) awards. The number depends on available funds—23 in 1983, 12 in 1982.

Training Grants and Fellowships

If an adequate supply of qualified individuals to educate researchers and conduct research is an essential component of the infrastructure for research, training grants are a mechanism that can help the development of that infrastructure.

The Division of Nursing, HRSA, currently administers two programs that support graduate nurse training. The largest is for Advanced Training of Professional Nurses. This program awards grants to graduate schools of nursing and schools of public health which allocate the funds to full-time graduate students. Funding for this program totaled $7 million in 1965, and increased to $13 million in 1974. Until 1977 awards were made to undergraduate as well as graduate students. Since 1977 eligibility has been confined to graduate students. In 1983 funding dropped to $9.5 million. Those funds supported approximately 3,500 students in 137 schools, with each student receiving an average of $2,715 (Buchanan, 1983).

The second program—the National Research Service Awards (NRSA)— offers pre- and postdoctoral fellowships to students in nursing and relevant disciplines and institutional grants to schools to support full-time training in research. This program has been funded at about $1 million annually for the past 5 . A few additional training awards in nursing research are made by the NIH. The Division of Nursing expects to make 38–45 new awards in FY 1983 (Wood, 1983). Only three institutional awards have been made since 1977 and all were phased out in 1981.

Since 1977 this Committee has developed recommendations concerning the number of students to be supported under the NRSA authority in the area of nursing research, the distribution between pre- and postdoctoral students, and the distribution between schools of nursing and other schools and basic science and non-science departments. The general view has been that federal support for nursing research training should emphasize the improvement of programs of demonstrated capability rather than the further proliferation of nursing doctoral programs. The Committee has also recommended that the emphasis of the fellowship programs should be on predoctoral support to increase the pool of research personnel, and provide research faculty to staff the proliferating doctoral nursing programs. In 1977 the Committee recommended that 29 percent of fellowships be awarded to students in graduate schools of nursing in 1979 and should rise to 57 percent by 1981. It was anticipated that schools of nursing would substantially increase their ability to provide research training. In the same report the Committee recommended that the proportion of fellowships in non-science departments fall from 29 percent to zero between 1979 and 1981.

The Institute of Medicine in its study of nursing education reviewed the programs of federal support and recommended an expansion of support of fellowships, loans, and programs at the graduate level “to assist in increasing the rate of growth in the numbers of nurses with masters and doctoral degrees in nursing and relevant disciplines”. (It should be noted that two members of the committee made a statement of exception to the words “and relevant disciplines.” They argued that nurses should have advanced education in their own discipline—nursing—for a number of reasons including preparation for leadership in nursing and to develop competencies unique to nursing.)



In view of the continued high demand for doctorally prepared nurses and the relative immaturity of the emerging field of nursing research, we agree with the general conclusions of the IOM study. There is a need to continue to promote expertise in nursing research, and financial support for graduate students is a proven mechanism for doing so.



what is the importance of nursing research paper?

Nursing research has a tremendous influence on current and future professional nursing practice, thus rendering it an essential component of the educational process. This article chronicles the learning experiences of two undergraduate nursing students who were provided with the opportunity to become team members in a study funded by the National Institute of Nursing Research. The application process, the various learning opportunities and responsibilities performed by the students, and the benefits and outcomes of the experience are described. The authors hope that by sharing their learning experiences, more students will be given similar opportunities using the strategies presented in this article. Nursing research is critical to the nursing profession and is necessary for continuing advancements that promote optimal nursing care.

Nursing research has a tremendous influence on current and future professional nursing practice, thus rendering it an essential component of the educational process. This article chronicles the learning experiences of two undergraduate nursing students who were provided with the opportunity to become team members in a study funded by the National Institute of Nursing Research. The application process, the various learning opportunities and responsibilities performed by the students, and the benefits and outcomes of the experience are described. The authors hope that by sharing their learning experiences, more students will be given similar opportunities using the strategies presented in this article. Nursing research is critical to the nursing profession and is necessary for continuing advancements that promote optimal nursing care.


Nursing research has a tremendous influence on current and future professional nursing practice, thus rendering it an essential component of the educational process. This article chronicles the learning experiences of two undergraduate nursing students who were provided with the opportunity to become team members in a study funded by the National Institute of Nursing Research. The application process, the various learning opportunities and responsibilities performed by the students, and the benefits and outcomes of the experience are described. The authors hope that by sharing their learning experiences, more students will be given similar opportunities using the strategies presented in this article. Nursing research is critical to the nursing profession and is necessary for continuing advancements that promote optimal nursing care.Nursing research has a tremendous influence on current and future professional nursing practice, thus rendering it an essential component of the educational process. This article chronicles the learning experiences of two undergraduate nursing students who were provided with the opportunity to become team members in a study funded by the National Institute of Nursing Research. The application process, the various learning opportunities and responsibilities performed by the students, and the benefits and outcomes of the experience are described. The authors hope that by sharing their learning experiences, more students will be given similar opportunities using the strategies presented in this article. Nursing research is critical to the nursing profession and is necessary for continuing advancements that promote optimal nursing care.


Nurses provide direct care to their patients on a daily basis, so they know which approaches work well and which need adjusting. An essential trait of a caring, competent practitioner is questioning standard procedure and determining how to improve it. Nursing concerns are the heart of nursing research.


What Is Nursing Research?

According to the American Association of Colleges of Nursing, rigorous nursing research provides a body of knowledge that helps advance nursing practice. The findings of such scientific inquiry may also help shape health policy and contribute to global healthcare. Nursing professionals are committed to the health and well-being of everyone. The research they conduct often has lasting impacts.

The National Institute of Nursing Research says that nursing research uncovers knowledge to build the foundation of clinical practice and reinforce the following:

  • Prevent disease and disability.
  • Manage symptoms of illness.
  • Enhance end-of-life care.

According to the website Nursing World, nurses use research to effect positive outcomes for their patients and for others within the healthcare system. As patients’ needs become more complex and healthcare systems become more varied, nurses use evidence-based care by incorporating their own nursing research with their professional experience and a patient’s preferences. Nurses may conduct their own research, use research in their everyday practice and teach others using existing research.

Scientific Inquiry

The American Association of Colleges of Nursing uses three classifications of nursing research. These include clinical research, nursing education research and health systems and outcomes research. Clinical research looks at care for individuals across the spans of their entire lives, and nurses can carry out this research in any clinical setting. Nursing education research examines how students learn the nursing profession. Finally, health systems and outcomes research focus on the quality, quantity and costs of healthcare services, including how to improve the delivery of care. These three areas provide the full scope of nursing research.

Role of Nursing Research in Online Programs

Students who enrol in online nursing programs may take courses in research that will help improve their skills. Courses in nursing research may introduce research design and analysis, giving the student a basis for learning how to examine, apply and utilize current knowledge. These courses also include evidence-based practice, and the student will receive an overview of current issues in knowledge development.

Today’s healthcare system is complex, and patients have increasingly varied needs. Developing solutions for the health issues of diverse populations requires providers with many different perspectives. Those enrolled in online nursing programs may become professionals who understand the need for nursing research and how to incorporate it into their own practice.


ultimate purpose of all nursing research

In order to have evidence-based practice, we need evidence. And with their knowledge and hands-on experience, nurses can theorize, hypothesize, structure studies, and collect evidence that leads to better care. The goal of nursing research is to achieve better care standards and applications for patients and families.


Throughout the 21st century, the role of nurse has evolved significantly. Nurses work in a variety of settings, including the hospital, the classroom, the community health department, the business sector, home health care, and the laboratory. Although each role carries different responsibilities, the primary goal of a professional nurse remains the same: to be the client’s advocate and provide optimal care on the basis of evidence obtained through research.

Baccalaureate programs in the United States prepare students for entry-level nursing positions. The focus is to care for individuals throughout the human life span. Knowledge is acquired from textbooks, classroom and Web-based instruction, simulation, and clinical experiences. The goal of all programs is for students to graduate as safe, entry-level professionals, having received a well-rounded exposure to the nursing field. Students are exposed to evidence-based nursing practice throughout their curriculum; however, the allocated time for nursing research is often limited. Many programs require only one 3-credit hour course for nursing research. This amount of time is limited, despite the broad spectrum of nursing research and its influence on current and future nursing care.

Research is typically not among the traditional responsibilities of an entry-level nurse. Many nurses are involved in either direct patient care or administrative aspects of health care. Nursing research is a growing field in which individuals within the profession can contribute a variety of skills and experiences to the science of nursing care. There are frequent misconceptions as to what nursing research is. Some individuals do not even know how to begin to define nursing research. According to Polit and Beck (2006), nursing research is:

systematic inquiry designed to develop knowledge about issues of importance to nurses, including nursing practice, nursing education, and nursing administration.

Nursing research is vital to the practice of professional nursing, and the importance of its inclusion during undergraduate instruction cannot be overemphasized. Only with exposure and experience can students begin to understand the concept and importance of nursing research.

The purpose of this article is to describe undergraduate students’ experiences of becoming aware of and participating in a federally funded research study from the National Institute of Nursing Research. As a part of funding for the study, which was an AREA award (Academic Research Enhancement Award, R15 mechanism), there were designated opportunities for student involvement. The primary aim of the research study was to investigate the effects of gene-environment interactions on risk factors of preclinical cardiovascular disease in a cohort of 585 young adults who all had a positive family history of cardiovascular disease (i.e., essential hypertension or premature myocardial infarction at age 55 or younger in one or both biological parents or in one or more grandparents), verified in the medical record. Specific genes examined included cytochrome P-450, family 1, subfamily A, polypeptide 1; cytochrome P-450 2A; glutathione S-transferase mu 1; and glutathione S-transferase theta 1. Cardiovascular-dependent measures were diastolic blood pressure, endothelium-dependent arterial vasodilation, left ventricular mass indexed for body size, systolic blood pressure, and total peripheral resistance. The effects of ethnicity and gender were also explored.


Learning Opportunity

The learning process began with the principal investigator (M.S.T.) of the study visiting the junior class (class of 2007) of baccalaureate students at the Medical College of Georgia. This particular student group was chosen due to their academic standing because they would have the chance to take full advantage of learning directly from a nurse researcher for one full year before graduation. The principal investigator briefly presented and discussed the growing field of nursing research, the advancements made by nursing research, and the critical role of nursing research to nursing practice. The principal investigator also presented an overview of the funded research study and extended an invitation to students to apply for two part-time positions on the grant that were designed specifically for nursing student involvement. Students recognized the excellent opportunity and were intrigued with the future possibilities. They understood this option was unique and appeared to be a great pathway for becoming an active participant in learning the nursing research process through involvement in an official nursing research study.

The principal investigator established objective criteria for the application process. The criteria included writing a maximum 1-page essay sharing the reasons why the students wanted to join the research project as a team member and also sharing their personal and professional goals for involvement in the study. Many students were interested; thus, it was a very competitive process. The principal investigator reviewed the essays and selected approximately 10 prospective individuals for an interview. The interview was an extension of the essay. At the interview, the principal investigator further described the positions, provided a detailed overview of the grant, and had the opportunity to gain a better understanding of the student candidates. The students were encouraged to ask questions to further understand the expectations of the prospective opportunity. The interview also provided the students with increased exposure to the study’s goal and more familiarization with the expectations of the funded positions.

After the interview process was completed, two individuals were selected, per the grant specifications. The selected individuals described the interview process as a positive experience that helped solidify their desire to become involved in the research study. The principal investigator emphasized that this job opportunity was designed to be a learning experience in which the students would be guided through the entire research study process and become members of a multidisciplinary team. Time responsibilities for each student included approximately 6 hours per week. The principal investigator communicated clearly that the nursing baccalaureate program was the first priority for the students, and thus provided a flexible work scheduled.

The students began working in early april 2006. The first step in the work experience included 6 weeks of funded orientation. This was their first exposure to the research process; thus, it was important for the students to be provided with a strong foundation. Orientation included attending a team meeting and being introduced to the members of the multidisciplinary team (i.e., biostatistician, cardiologist, geneticists, nurse researcher, and psychologist, all of whom served as co-investigators, and the genetic laboratory personnel); reviewing the grant application; completing the Collaborative Institutional Training Initiative (CITI) (2000); completing the Roche educational program on genetics; and touring the worksite facilities. Reviewing the grant gave the students a better understanding of the specific aims and objectives of the study and the intended procedures of the genetic laboratory work in which the students would be involved. The complexity of the grant required the principal investigator to further explain and clarify specific details. The CITI training, which is required by the institution’s Office of Human Research Protection, was completed online and took approximately 5.5 hours. The CITI program was presented in a tutorial format, and satisfactory completion of numerous quizzes was required. The task was tedious and time consuming, but valuable and essential, as it increased the awareness of the established codes of conduct for research. At the conclusion of the CITI training, the students understood the necessary policies and procedures for maintaining security and confidentiality of human subjects, the legal and ethical issues regarding the research process, and the essential procedures for research conduct.

Although the students had a basic understanding of genetics, they completed the Roche Genetics Education Program (2004) to gain a deeper understanding. The program was direct and easy to navigate and was excellent for all learning styles, as it contained both visual and auditory explanations. The explanations covered both basic and complex genetic concepts. Through the use of the genetics program, the students were able to comprehend abstract genetic details and to further understand the importance and influence of genetics on personal health. To conclude the orientation process, students were taught basic laboratory procedures, such as polymerase chain reaction and restrictive enzyme digestion, which were used to perform genotyping for the study. After these procedures had been observed several times, the students were given the opportunity to acquire hands-on experience with these laboratory techniques. Each of these components of the orientation process provided the students with the needed foundation for becoming involved in the research study.


Benefits and Outcomes

From the students’ perspectives, this opportunity was extremely beneficial. Prior to this experience, the students were not familiar with nursing research. Their original perception of research was that it was conducted by people with chemistry, biology, biochemistry, and genetic degrees in laboratories at major universities. They now realize that nursing and research can be combined and that optimal nursing care is dependent on the latest research findings. In addition, the students believe this opportunity has been beneficial in learning that nurse researchers are valuable to nurses in other settings. For example, one of the long-term goals of this research study is to develop appropriate interventions for children who are more susceptible to and at risk for the harmful effects of tobacco smoke due to their genetic heritage. The information obtained by a nurse researcher can be disseminated to nurses who work directly with the individuals to whom the research applies. Practice that has shown to be effective through research allows nurses to better advocate for patients and provide the best possible care. Although the majority of nurses who provide patient care will be consumers of nursing research, implementing evidence-based nursing practice is crucial to provide optimal nursing care. Information from nursing research has the potential to directly impact the care provided to patients in all health care settings.

Now that the students have had the opportunity to become more familiar with nursing research through involvement as team members, they recognize that their future professional possibilities are endless. Nursing research is an emerging and growing field in which individuals can apply their nursing education to discover new advancements that promote evidence-based care. They learned the research process and the important roles that each team member plays during the study phases of conception, design, implementation, analysis, and dissemination. Each aspect of the research process is important and contributes to the overall success of the study.

The students also discovered the benefit of trying new things. Prior to this experience, they had little exposure to the research process and nursing research. Consequently, they had to be receptive to learning and recognize that acquiring new knowledge was a gradual process. At times, the students felt anxious because all aspects were new, but they realized that without trying, they would never advance and feel comfortable with the research process. As the students reflected, they thought this was an excellent growing experience professionally, scholastically, and personally. In addition, this opportunity benefited the students’ peers through discussions and their sharing of work responsibilities, the research process, and the importance of evidence-based practice. As future nurses, the students are strong proponents of nursing research, and this experience has also broadened their horizons regarding future professional growth and opportunities. In addition, they have a better understanding of the importance of scientific evidence to support their clinical practice. As a result, the students thought that a stronger emphasis should be placed on nursing research in undergraduate baccalaureate education and that more students should have the opportunity to participate as team members in nursing research studies.


.what is the purpose of nursing research paper?


Ultimate purpose of all nursing research


In order to have evidence-based practice, we need evidence. And with their knowledge and hands-on experience, nurses can theorize, hypothesize, structure studies, and collect evidence that leads to better care. The goal of nursing research is to achieve better care standards and applications for patients and families.


Research helps nurses determine effective best practices and improve patient care. Nurses in an online RN to BSN program learn to retrieve, read, critique and apply nursing research. Because new information is always coming to light, it is crucial that BSN-prepared nurses know the importance of research. The findings from peer-reviewed studies can correct old misunderstandings, pave the way for new treatment protocols and create new methodology — all of which improve patient outcomes.

Research also helps nursing respond to changes in the healthcare environment, patient populations and government regulations. As researchers make discoveries, the practice of nursing continues to change. The information students learn can become quickly outdated, so being able to keep up with new developments in nursing helps graduates in their careers.

Every nurse can benefit from knowing why nursing research is important, how research is conducted and how research informs patient care. Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN) programs teach nurses to appreciate and use research in their everyday careers, compare findings and read published research.

Information Literacy and Nursing

Information literacy is not the same as the ability to read, use the computer effectively or use search engines. This skill goes beyond comprehending the basics of finding resources. Understanding information transforms it from the knowledge you have into knowledge you can actually use. As a nurse, you need knowledge that makes a difference in your practice and helps you stay current in your field.

Nurses learning to effectively process and use information from published research can improve their information literacy. Simply reading study results is of little help if you do not comprehend what you read. Nursing schools teach nurses how to interpret data, compare different studies, process information, critique results and think critically. Information literacy empowers nurses to use research in their careers so they can make meaningful clinical decisions.

Teaching Information Literacy

BSN programs teach nurses to refer to research in response to problems and questions. To this end, many nursing schools collaborate with research librarians to help students become more competent at using information. Problem-based learning allows students to use available information resources when they experience clinical challenges. Practicing these skills in an academic environment prepares nurses to use information resources in their own clinical practice.


Evidence-Based Practice


Evidence-based practice requires using research outcomes to drive clinical decisions and care. Nurses must base their work on the results of research. Peer-reviewed, published data that is accepted by the nursing profession as a whole provides guidance and establishes best practices in the field. Following the evidence, wherever it leads, is key to evidence-based practice. Results must be free of bias, verifiable and reproducible under the same research conditions. The standards for good research are high because published research results are likely to substantially influence the practice of nursing.

When you evaluate published research, consider these four important areas:

  • Validity: Is the study legitimate, sound and accurate?
  • Reliability: Is the measurement’s result consistent?
  • Relevance: Is there a logical connection between two occurrences, concepts or tasks?
  • Outcome: What conclusions did the researchers reach?

Not every study may be meaningful for your patient, question, topic or concern. You need to carefully evaluate every research paper you consider — look for weaknesses, inconsistencies, biases and other problems. Evidence-based practice requires you to become proficient at performing these evaluations and reaching your own conclusions about the information you use.

Types of Research

The research used in evidence-based practice can be quantitative, qualitative or both. From there, these two types can be divided into multiple categories. Understanding how nursing research can be categorized can help you understand and interpret research results.

  • Quantitative research: Numbers, percentages and variables are used to communicate results.
  • Qualitative research: Findings take the form of thoughts, perceptions and experiences.

Three Types of Quantitative Research:

  • Descriptive research expresses the characteristics or traits of a specific group, situation or individual. This type of research looks for new conclusions and connections that can be made based on observed traits.
  • Quasi-experimental research looks at cause-and-effect relationships between different variables.
  • Correlational research considers the relationships among variables, but does not draw a cause-and-effect relationship.

Five Types of Qualitative Research:

  • Ethnography observes or provides analysis about cultural and social customs and practices and how particular cultures understand disease and health.
  • Grounded theory is all about building theories in response to questions, problems and observations.
  • Symbolic interactionism studies personal interaction, communication patterns, interpretations and reactions. These factors can influence how people change their health practices over time.
  • Historical research systematically reviews a topic, culture or group and the subject’s history.
  • Phenomenology uses personal experiences and insights to inform the author’s conclusion.

No particular type of research is necessarily better than the others, but each type has certain uses and limitations. It is important for nurses to know the different types of research and how to use them.

Nurses need research because it helps them advance their field, stay updated and offer better patient care. Information literacy skills can help nurses use information more effectively to develop their own conclusions. Evidence-based practice is important for nurses. Nurses need to understand, evaluate and use research in their careers. Nursing schools teach these skills to help nurses advance in their careers.



The students were almost one full year into nursing school and thought they had learned about all of the possibilities for their futures when they were first presented with this learning opportunity. They knew their future options were numerous and included working in acute care and community settings. They also realized they could further their education and pursue graduate degrees to include a master’s degree and become an administrator, educator, clinical nurse specialist, nurse anesthetist, or nurse practitioner, or potentially pursue a doctorate. They did not know there was an emerging and growing field in which their nursing education could be applied and furthered—the area of research and the role of becoming a nurse researcher. Prior to this experience, students perceived their possibilities for a professional career in nursing were tremendous. Now by being involved in the entire process of conducting a federally funded research study, they realized their future professional possibilities are limitless.






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