Using Descriptive Statistics

*****Suggested Readings*****

Use your Warner text, Applied Statistics: From Bivariate Through Multivariate Techniques,

  • Read Chapter 2, “Basic Statistics, Sampling Error, and Confidence Intervals,” pages 41–80. This reading addresses the following topics:
    • Sample mean ( M).
    • Sum of squared deviations ( SS).
    • Sample variance ( s2).
    • Sample standard deviation ( s).
    • Sample standard error ( SE).
    • Confidence intervals (CIs).
  • Read Chapter 4, “Preliminary Data Screening” pages 125–184. This reading addresses the following topics:
    • Problems in real data.
    • Identification of errors and inconsistencies.
    • Missing values.
    • Data screening for individual variables.
    • Data screening for bivariate analysis.
    • Data transformations.
    • Reporting preliminary data screening.

*********For this DISCUSSION:

Using Descriptive Statistics

  • Discuss your previous experience with descriptive statistics. For example, you have probably encountered descriptive statistics in an undergraduate course and in journal articles.
  • Analyze the strengths and limitations of descriptive statistics.
  • Finally, discuss how you might use descriptive statistics in your professional or academic future.
  • Remember to cite your supporting references.


*********For this discussion:

Confidence Intervals

  • Define the term confidence interval (CI).
  • Specify the use of confidence intervals in statistical analysis.
  • Analyze why the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association strongly recommends the inclusion of confidence intervals in study results.
    • APA Style Central provides guidance in using proper APA style. See the APA Style and Format section of the Writing Center for instructions on accessing and using APA Style Central
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