# Using Descriptive Statistics

Use your Warner text, Applied Statistics: From Bivariate Through Multivariate Techniques,

• Read Chapter 2, “Basic Statistics, Sampling Error, and Confidence Intervals,” pages 41–80. This reading addresses the following topics:
• Sample mean ( M).
• Sum of squared deviations ( SS).
• Sample variance ( s2).
• Sample standard deviation ( s).
• Sample standard error ( SE).
• Confidence intervals (CIs).
• Read Chapter 4, “Preliminary Data Screening” pages 125–184. This reading addresses the following topics:
• Problems in real data.
• Identification of errors and inconsistencies.
• Missing values.
• Data screening for individual variables.
• Data screening for bivariate analysis.
• Data transformations.
• Reporting preliminary data screening.

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### Using Descriptive Statistics

• Discuss your previous experience with descriptive statistics. For example, you have probably encountered descriptive statistics in an undergraduate course and in journal articles.
• Analyze the strengths and limitations of descriptive statistics.
• Finally, discuss how you might use descriptive statistics in your professional or academic future.
• Remember to cite your supporting references.

Unit2Disc2QDA

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### Confidence Intervals

• Define the term confidence interval (CI).
• Specify the use of confidence intervals in statistical analysis.
• Analyze why the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association strongly recommends the inclusion of confidence intervals in study results.
• APA Style Central provides guidance in using proper APA style. See the APA Style and Format section of the Writing Center for instructions on accessing and using APA Style Central

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