If you consider all regular players (not counting pitchers) on Major League Baseball teams over recent years, the season batting averages are approximately normally distributed, with a mean around .250 and a standard deviation around .050. Carefully explain each component of a fixed-level test in the context of these questions. Use α = 0.05.

 a. The New York Yankees had a team batting average of .276 in 2005, with 16 regular players contributing. Is this a higher average than would be expected for a random sample of 16 players?

b. The Seattle Mariners had a team batting average of .256 in 2005, also with about 16 regular players contributing. Can this team be considered above average in hitting? [Source:, October 2005.]

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