P.1.12 In the same study as described in P.1.11, researchers
found little difference in the average amount of cortisol levels in the novice
and expert skydivers. The average amount of cortisol was approximately 10 in
the experienced group and 8 in the inexperienced group. Cortisol is known as
the “stress” hormone and is released in response to fear or stress. Identify
the six steps of a statistical investigation in this study by answering the
following questions about this study.

 a. Step 1: Ask a research question. What is the research
question being investigated in this study?

 b. Step 2: Design a study and collect data.

 i. What are the observational units in the study?

 ii. How were the observational units obtained?

 iii. What are the variables in this study? Classify each as
categorical or quantitative.

 c. Step 3: Explore the data.

 i. What are the average cortisol scores in the two groups?

 ii. How many individuals are in each group?

 d. Step 4: Draw inferences beyond the data. What is the
researchers’ conclusion about the difference in cortisol levels between the two

 e. Step 5: Formulate conclusions. In order to make their
conclusions more relevant, what are the researchers hoping about the 24
skydivers in this study as compared to all skydivers in general?

 f. Step 6: Look back and ahead. The researchers note that
novice skydivers used an automatically deploying parachute, whereas experts
deployed their own parachute. Explain the impact this could have on the results
of the study and how it could be addressed in future studies.

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