P.1.11 A recent study investigated self-reported anxiety
levels immediately before a skydive among 11 first-time skydivers and 13
experienced skydivers (at least 30 jumps) recruited from a parachute center in
northern England (Hare et al., 2013). The researchers found that anxiety levels
were substantially higher (average anxiety score of 43, higher means more
anxiety) among the first-time skydivers as compared to the experienced
skydivers (average anxiety score of 27) on a standard test for anxiety (Spiel
Berger State Trait Anxiety Inventory). Identify the six steps of a statistical
investigation in this study by answering the following questions about this
Â a. Step 1: Ask a research question. What is the research
question being investigated in this study?
Â b. Step 2: Design a study and collect data.
Â i. What are the observational units in the study?
Â ii. How were the observational units obtained?
Â iii. What are the variables in this study? Classify each as
categorical or quantitative.
Â c. Step 3: Explore the data.
Â i. What are the average anxiety scores in the two groups?
ii. How many individuals are in each group?
Â d. Step 4: Draw inferences beyond the data. What is the
researchersâ€™ conclusion about the difference in anxiety levels between the two
Â e. Step 5: Formulate conclusions. In order to make their
conclusions more relevant, what are the researchers hoping about the 24
skydivers in this study as compared to all skydivers in general?
Â f. Step 6: Look back and ahead. THz e average age of novice
skydivers was 21 and the average age of experienced skydivers was 28. Explain
how this could impact the conclusions of the researchers. How could this be
addressed in a future study?