Classifying air threats with heuristics. The Journal of Behavioral Decision Making (January 2007) published a study on the use of heuristics to classify the threat level of approaching aircraft. Of special interest was the use of a fast and frugal heuristic—a computationally simple procedure for making judgments with limited information—named “Take-the-Best-for-Classification” (TTBC). Subjects were 48 men and women; some were from a Canadian Forces reserve unit, and others were university students. Each subject was presented with a radar screen on which simulated approaching aircraft were identified with asterisks. By using the computer mouse to click on the asterisk, further information about the aircraft was provided. The goal was to identify the aircraft as “friend” or “foe” as fast as possible. Half the subjects were given cue-based instructions for determining the type of aircraft, while the other half were given pattern-based instructions. The researcher also classified the heuristic strategy used by the subject as TTBC, Guess, or Other. Data on the two variables, instruction type and strategy, measured for each of the 48 subjects are saved in the file. (Data for the first five and last five subjects are shown in the table below.) Do the data provide sufficient evidence (at  = .05) to indicate that choice of heuristic strategy depends on type of instruction provided? At  = .01?

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