For the data for OECD nations in Table 3.13 in Exercise 3.6 and in the UN data file, use software to construct a scatterplot relating x = carbon dioxide emissions () and y = fertility rate.

(a) Based on this plot, would you expect the correlation between these variables to be positive, or negative? Why?

(b) Do you see an observation that falls apart from the others? Identify the nation.

(c) The correlation with  is 0.67 for GDP and −0.55 for the gender inequality index. Which variable is more strongly associated with ? Why?

Exercise 3.6

The OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) consists of advanced, industrialized countries that accept the principles of representative democracy and a free market economy. Table 3.13 shows part of the OECD data file at the text website that has data on several variables for the 24 nations that made up the OECD before its recent enlargement to include nations that have recently undergone market economy reforms. The variables are gross domestic product (GDP, per capita in U.S. dollars), the Gini measure of inequality, a human development index (HDI, which has components referring to life expectancy at birth, educational attainment, and income per capita), an index of economic freedom, carbon dioxide emissions (, per capita, in metric tons), and prison population (per 100,000 people). Using the complete data file from the text website:

(a) Construct a stem-and-leaf plot of the GDP values, by rounding and reporting the values in thousands of dollars (e.g., replacing  by 44).

(b) Construct a histogram. Interpret.

(c) Identify the outlier in each plot.

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