solution

Reconsider the data from the previous exercise about
investigating whether there is a relationship between undergoing surgery and
whether a man dies due to prostate cancer related reasons.

Â a. Which of the following is the appropriate null
hypothesis? Choose one.

Â A. Surgery recipients are equally likely as those just
under observation to die of prostate cancer related reasons.

B. Surgery recipients are less likely than those just under
observation to die of prostate cancer related reasons.

C. Surgery recipients are more likely than those just under
observation to die of prostate cancer related reasons.

D. Surgery recipients are not equally likely as those just
under observation to die of prostate cancer related reasons. b. Which of the
following is the appropriate alternative hypothesis? Choose one.

Â A. Surgery recipients are equally likely as those just
under observation to die of prostate cancer related reasons.

B. Surgery recipients are less likely than those just under
observation to die of prostate cancer related reasons.

Â C. Surgery recipients are more likely than those just under
observation to die of prostate cancer related reasons.

Â D. Surgery recipients are not equally likely as those just
under observation to die of prostate cancer related reasons. Suppose that we
want to use cards to perform a tactile simulation to carry out a randomization
test of the appropriate hypotheses.

c. In total, how many cards will we need?

Â d. We need cards of different colors. How many colors do we
need? How many cards of each color do we need? Explain.

e. We will shuffle the stack of cards and deal them into
multiple piles. How many piles should we make and how many cards should we
place in each pile? Why?

Â f. What statistic should we record after we have shuffled
and dealt the cards into two piles? (Hint: There is more than one correct

g. Suppose that we have repeated the shuffle and deal many
times and recorded the appropriate statistic every single time. What should we
do next to find the p-value?

Â h. Which of the following is the purpose of shuffling and
dealing cards into two piles repeatedly and recording a chosen statistic value
for each repetition?

A. To generate more samples

Â B. To improve accuracy of the study

Â C. To generate values of the statistic that could have
happened by chance alone

D. All of the above

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