Figure 6.7 shows two steps back in time rather than just the single one in Fig. 6.6. If we wish to simulate this second step, we need to distinguish the population size from the number of lineages that end up in the present, or ancestral lineages. We have already seen that after the first generation the number of ancestral lineages is usually smaller than the population size. We now wish to simulate the effect of going back one step when starting from an arbitrary number of ancestral lineages, n, given the population size, N. Here is an edited version of trace1.awk for doing this:

Save your version as trace2.awk and run it a few times. How often do you observe a reduction in n if you start with N = 100 and n = 10?

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