bio labs


Lab Answers

1.      Anatomy of a pine.

a)      Place your open seed cone into a cup of tap water.

b)      Record:  Time into water _2200________ 

Cone appearance _pine cone ________________________

c)      Let the cone sit in the water for at least 30 minutes.

d)     Record:  Time out of water _2230______ 

Cone appearance ___cone appeared moist and started to open ______________________

2.      Vascular transport.

a)      Examine the top of the celery stalk.  Record your observations:

The top of the celery had blue stains. The top seemed to have many little blue dots.


b)      Make a cross-section cut where the celery stalk has not been split.  Record your observations:


3.      Answer the following questions about seed dispersal.

  1. Why is it important for a parent plant to disperse its seeds? Notice that this is not asking why reproduction is important.

It is important for a parent plant to disperse its seed for many reasons. The ability for the plant to grow near the parent plant may be unfavorable for the plant. Also this may help increase the plants chance for survival. Seed may land on surfaces that provide better nutrients for it. Weather can also damage the seeds, therefore being dispersed to a place that can protect it from the elements can also increase its survival.  


  1. What do gymnosperms use to disperse seeds?  What do angiosperms use?

Gymnosperm such as (pine, spruce, and douglas fir) have winged seeds dispersed by wind.  Other gymnosperms have nuts which are spread by nut-eating animals such as squirrels.


Angiosperm such as ( willows, apple trees, and mangroves adapt and use the environment around them to disperse their seeds.


  1. Some gymnosperms, such as redwoods, release seeds only after a fire.  Suggest a reason why this is done.

Redwoods may only release their seeds during a fire due to them adapting to an environment where fires have become part of their life cycle.  Fresh nutrients and low competition for direct sunlight are the product of a fire, giving seeds a better survival.


  1. Design an experiment that would test the hypothesis that you posed in c).


4.      Which direction does xylem flow?  What about phloem?


Water enters thru the roots of a plant and flows upwards to the rest of the     plant.


Water flows down from the leaves to the steam to the roots.




5.      Use Figure 5.4 to answer this question.  What is the function of:

a)      radicle?

Is the embryonic root inside of the seed. It is the first thing to emerge out of a seed and down into the ground to allow the seed to suck up water and send out its leaves so that it can start photosynthesizing.

b)      hypocotyl?

The hypocotylis is like a stem of a germinating seed. Hypocotyls

c)      epicotyl?







Lab Report 6






Lab Observations









Lab Answers

Lab 6A:  Water transport and salinity


6        Examine the top of the celery stalks. Are there differences between the celery in the high salt and low salt water conditions? Record your observations.



6        Record the distance (cm) traveled by the red dye in high salt conditions (S), the blue dye in high salt conditions (S), the red dye in low salt conditions (non-S) and the blue dye in low salt conditions (non-S).


Table 6.1


                                                                        Distance (cm)


Red dye (S)                                                                


Blue dye (S)                                                               


Red dye (non-S)                                                        


Blue dye (non-S)                                                        



6        From Question 2 above, did the dyes travel at the same rate?  What can you conclude about the effect of salinity on water transport in celery from this experiment?  Propose a biological or physical explanation for your conclusion.



Lab 6B:  Seed germination and environmental conditions


6        Observe the radish seed and sprout. Are radishes monocots or dicots? How can you tell?



6        Describe the results of your experiment in Table 6.2. How many sprouted seeds were present in each group per day? Include any other relevant observations, such as appearance, color, etc.  Include any alternative treatments or conditions.


Table 6.2.  Seed germination.




Initial date (Day 0): ________________




Record # sprouts, appearance, etc. per day.


Saline solution

Day 1:

Day 2:

Day 3:

Day 4:

0% (“0” cup)





3.1% (“1/32” cup)





6.3% (“1/16 cup)





12.5% (“1/8” cup)





25% (“1/4” cup)





50% (“1/2” cup)


















6        From your results in Table 6.2, draw a conclusion about the effect of salinity on sprouting success.  Include conclusions drawn from alternative treatments or conditions.






Lab Report 7






Lab Observations









Lab Answers

Lab 7A:  Fungi


1.      List four ways that Fungi are similar to plants.


2.      List four differences between Fungi and plants.


3.      List four differences between Fungi and animals.


4.      List four ways that Fungi are similar to animals.


5.      Which two groups are most closely related evolutionarily (explain your answer):


  1. Plants and animals,
  2. Plants and fungi,
  3. Fungi and Animals.


6.      List four facts that you learned about Fungi, but did not know before.


Lab 7B:  Animalia


7.      For the animals that you examined, briefly describe at least three unique or distinctive features for each animal.

8.      Compare and contrast the two animals.  That is, describe at least four features of their body design that are similar, and at least four ways in which they differ.








Lab Report 8






Lab Observations




Lab Answers

  1. Using Figure 8.1, find each of the listed bones on your body.  Then, using Figures 8.2 and 8.3, write in a muscle that attaches to the bone and an artery that runs alongside the bone.


Bone                                                 Artery















Radius or Ulna           



Coxal bone                 



















  1. Record data for heart rate as measured from the carotid artery (see Figure 8.5).


Table 8.1.  Heart rate (carotid artery).










(Exercise 1)

(Exercise 2)

(End Rest)

Check 1 (15 sec)





Check 2 (15 sec)





Check 3 (15 sec)





Check 4 (15 sec)










Sum of all checks






Heart rate

Heart rate

Heart rate

Heart rate









  1. Record data for heart rate as measured from the radial artery (see Figure 8.6).


Table 8.2.  Heart rate (radial artery).










(Exercise 1)

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