Assignment 2 Directions                                      Enter your Name Here =è XXXXXXXXXX




Assignment 2 is divided into two documents: Assignment 2 Theory (50% of the assignment grade) and Assignment 2 Hands-on (50% of the assignment grade).




Most requirements of this assignment will require you to research answers from your text book (you must read the text book to get some answers), from the Internet, or any other reasonable source. Many Internet sources, video links, text book and Blackboard presentation reference are provided to help you START your research. I have found that any single Internet source is very incomplete and the format may not conducive for most answers required. Some students do not READ the text book or review the Power Point presentation provided to you in Blackboard.   Some answers are only available from my power point presentations or update notes.




You may cut-and-paste answers whenever appropriate, you should take care to synthesize your answers to include multiple sources. I would be impressed that you consult a Google image search and paste and appropriate image to supplement your answer.




While I permit cut-and-paste, I do expect you use your own words so that you:


1. Organize the answer


2. Demonstrate that you have read what you have cut-and-pasted


3. Use any means that clearly displays that you have gained knowledge.




If you are LEARNING the subject matter there should be no problem. If you cut-and-paste and pray that it might answer the question you will be penalized. I hate irrelevant cut-and-paste BS.




The content of each student’s assignment may NOT be copied from any other current or past student enrolled in this class. Each assignment is to be prepared by ONE student.  Assignments are NOT a group-prepared assignment. Copying and pasting assignment any portion of the requirements from another student either enrolled in the current semester and or a previous semester is an act of plagiarism according to the RMU Academic Integrity Policy.  Any assignment found to be “too much alike” will be subject to a grade of zero for all parties concerned. Such an act constitutes a violation of the Robert Morris University Academic Integrity Policy.  The instructor reserves the right to review past assignments with students who are unable to prepare assignments during the hands-on portion of the exam to determine the student’s mastery of the assignment’s objectives. The assignment grade based upon the result of the instructor’s review.  On-ground tests may be used to compare the student’s knowledge to performance on assignments.  All acts of plagiarism will be submitted the RMU Academic Integrity Board to determine university-wide penalties.




You, however, may discuss assignment requirements, assist other students with debugging programs or other hands-on-requirements, tutor students, or provide other advice that may assist the students in acquiring knowledge. But the actual preparation of an individual assignment must have been completely prepared by the student who submitted the assignment. Sections of the assignments may be copied from the internet as per the individual assignment’s directions. Please contact the instructor if you need assistance interpreting this RMU Academic Integrity Policy.    





You are to enter all answers or Prtscrn requirements into this Word Document.  You are not permitted to submit any other document format, e.g., Wordpad, PDFs, etc. that is not based on this original Word document.  This document contains hidden internal markers and applications that will track the version of this assignment and your assignment progress.




You MUST submit the assignments using the Word document(s) provided you. You may not use any other word processor, except Microsoft Word. Do not use Open Office DOCX files.




When an instructor has possession of an electronic document it is very easy to detect plagiarism. Many instructors use Turnitin assignments, which is applicable to assignments that permit cut-and-paste as this assignment.  It is very easy to compare multiple copies of word documents (see link below).  Microsoft provides a variety of FREE anti-plagiarizing tools.  And there is a wide variety of tools that can analyze hidden information within a Word document (see sample link below).  Changing fonts, margins and spacing does not do it anymore.  Even when individuals try to artificially change content, a Word document contains hidden markers that may provide an audit trail to find previous authors and computer systems who have edited the document.




Comparing and merging Microsoft Word documents –


Compare documents side by side –


Fight crime. Unravel incidents… one byte at a time.




Why am I providing some of this detailed information? There are several reasons.


1)  The real world exists outside this class.  A student in this class must be aware of the dangers when organizations or individuals provide electronic copies to others, e.g., an email attachment.


2)  The objective of this assignment is to “introduce” minimal knowledge that is required in the real world. If you do not acquire this minimal knowledge, you will significantly harm your employment, income, promotion and retention potentials.  If you do not want to do the hard work, I can recommend a better alternative to plagiarism – get a new major or career plan.  Perhaps you can star in a reality TV show.


3) The majority of my students will exert the effort and submit excellent assignments.  I will use many of the previous tools as time permits to ensure that you do not steal their grade. I really don’t understand why a student would provide a student with a copy of their assignment when they are competing in the same job market. In my class both the original author and the plagiarizer will be punished.




If you do not have a copy of WORD, you may use VMWARE VIEW (available from the RMU website) to access a virtual lab computer which contains any software needed for this course.




NEVER STORE ANY DOCUMENTS ON THE DESKTOP OF VMWARE VIRTUAL COMPUTER.  You will lose your document. It is preferable to store you documents on a local flash drive.




Since the quiz and test questions are based on your researched answers, I would recommend that you refer to any quiz questions on the assignment topics to ensure that your assignment answer is complete. Some quiz answers will NOT be provided to you unless 75% of your answers from practice attempts are correct.




YOU MUST enter your name in the beginning of this document as provided and “Save As” this document using a new name that includes your name and the assignment number, e.g., Bob Jones Assignment 2.docx





When completed, submit the FINAL version of this document to Blackboard under the Assignment folder for this individual assignment.  I NEVER ACCEPT AN ASSIGNMENT AS AN EMAIL ATTACHMENT FOR ANY REASON.  If you made an error on an assignment you may request that the previous assignment submission be cleared so that you may resubmit the assignment again.  Please only submit a completed assignment.  All assignments must use the original Word Document format.  Wordpad,  PDFs, etc. formats are not permitted.




While the assignments have a recommended due date, I do not penalized your assignment grade if you are slightly late. Please do not send me an email if you are going to submit your assignment late. I assume you have a good excuse.






Documenting your Results




Some requirements specify that you perform a specific action, e.g., access a web site, execute a command, etc.  You will need to provide evidence that you performed this task.  There are two techniques




1. Window 7 Snipping Tool –




2) Alt-PrtScrn – Available for all versions of Windows


1) Once the web site or the results of the command is displayed hold down the ALT key and press the Prtsc. Some laptops may require you to press the FN key to perform this action. 2) Position the cursor to answer the question in this Word document. 3) Press Ctrl-V or select Edit/paste.  To make your graphic more controllable in a Word Document, after pasting 1) Right-click and select Format Picture, 2) Click on the Layout tab, and 3) Select Square ( You may also other justification settings). Now you graphic will flow with text better and can be sized more easily. Page 117-14







Requirement 1 Virtual Memory Operating Systems, Paging and Storage Protection




Many Definitions may be found in the Glossary of the Introduction to the New Mainframe: Z/OS Basics books.   You can down load a PDF copy of this text book from Blackboard/Course Documents




How Operating Systems Work –


Virtual address space –


Address space –


What is virtual memory, how is it implemented, and why do operating systems use it?


What are the advantages and disadvantages of virtual memory?






These videos have been written for Unix, but many of the concepts can be applied to all operating systems  

Video – Virtual Memory – Part 1 –

Video – Virtual Memory – Part 2 –

Video – Page Replacement –

Video – Process Management –

Video – Processes – Part I –

Video – Processes – Part II –




3.4.4 Virtual storage overview – Introduction to the New Mainframe: Z/OS Basics – Please read




1. What is advantage of a virtual memory (storage) operating system?  Answer:







2. What is disadvantage of a virtual memory (storage) operating system? Answer:














All programs to be executed must be loaded into the memory (RAM) of the computer. Programs and data must be copied from storage, e.g., a disk, and loaded in to RAM by an operating system program call a loader. In a multitasking operating system user programs must be stored in RAM a manner that doesn’t overlap or conflict with other user or operating system programs




In addition, user and system programs need a way to communicate with each other.  If an operating system controls the hardware then a user program needs a communication method to ask the operating system to print output or store data on a disk.




Introduction to the New Mainframe: Z/OS Basics – Glossary




3.4.2 What is an address space?  – Introduction to the New Mainframe: Z/OS Basics – please read


3.4.3 What is dynamic address translation?  – Introduction to the New Mainframe: Z/OS Basics – please read


3.4.4 Virtual storage overview – Introduction to the New Mainframe: Z/OS Basics – please read


3.4.5 What is paging? – Introduction to the New Mainframe: Z/OS Basics – please read


3.4.7 What is Storage Protection? – Introduction to the New Mainframe: Z/OS Basics – please read





3. Using the following table write a discussion of following z/OS memory concepts and functions


z/OS Memory Concepts and Functions



Address Space


ASID (Address Space ID) 


Task Control Block


Private Space


Storage (Protection) Keys


Dynamic Address Translation (DAT)





z/OS address spaces are divided into three areas: Region, Segment and Page. z/OS uses these concepts in dynamic address translation find the virtual location of a specified area of memory. While at first these concepts may sound confusing assume that visitor from Ireland wanted to find my home. Would they start searching at the first street in New York City – obviously no 




First, we would start by asking which state do you want to locate (which Region)? Second, one would ask which city within the state do you want to locate (the segment table)? Third, which street within the city do you want to locate (the page table)? Finally, one can sequentially search all houses on the street or simply use the house address (the byte offset).  Likewise, a virtual address uses a similar approach to uniquely identify a virtual address location and to quickly find the address later when needed.   








4. Using the following table identify each virtual address concept.


z/OS Virtual Address Concepts


Function and Description







Byte Offset












5. How many bits are in a z/OS virtual address?  Answer:







6. The maximum of amount virtual address space the z/OS can manage is ____? Answer:












11. Using the following table, list the concept that best describes a type of page, or addressable unit.  


z/OS Addressable Units




A page or 4K block in central storage is called _______


A page or 4K block in virtual storage is called _______


A page or 4K block in auxiliary is called _______




12. When a program is selected for execution, z/OS first brings the program into which type of storage? Answer:







Page faults


What is the purpose of swapping?


What is the difference between a thread and a process?






13. z/OS uses a series of tables to determine whether a page is located in real storage or auxiliary storage. Only pages within real storage can be executed. Auxiliary storage is used to extend the real memory.  Using the following table describe each of the following z/OS paging concepts.


z/OS Virtual Paging Concepts



Page fault






Page Stealing


Unreferenced interval count




System Resource Manager


Workload Manager









14. Which pages are the most likely candidates to be stolen when using Page stealing? Answer:









Chapter 3: Overview of z/OS : Introduction to the Mainframe: z/OS basics ( pages 114 – 134)




Program Status Word


Operating Systems and Program Status Word


Storage Protect Keys


What is storage protection?


IBM PSW and Storage Protect Key –





Each executing program in an address space has a unique program status word associated with it. Also, within each program status word there is storage protect key.







15. What is the purpose of a Program Status Word (PSW)? Answer:







16. What is the purpose of using a private address space for each user? Answer:







17. What is the function of a storage protect key? Answer:







18. A storage protect key of 0 thru 7 indicates that a program is which type of program?  Answer:







19. A storage protect key of 8 indicates that a program is which type of program?  Answer:







20. A storage protect key of 9 thru 15 indicates that a program is which type of program? An

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