APA -Format Annotated Bibliography

APA -Format Annotated Bibliography

IB315PAS2A2020 International Bus. Perspectives 1


IB315PAS2A2020 International Bus. Perspectives









For this assignment, you will find, read, and create annotations for scholarly articles related to your chosen product and country. Later this term, you will synthesize these sources and combine this archival research with field research to develop your paper. Therefore, it is important to select a topic that interests you.


An annotated bibliography is a good way to keep track of your research. As you find sources and annotate them, you capture important information about a source, information that will hopefully prove helpful when you start to write paper. The sources you choose for the annotated bibliography should be sources you will use (or that could potentially be used) in your final paper for the course. If you’re going to do all the work that an annotated bibliography entails, why not make it count! The assignment requires 10 annotated sources, but you may end up with more than that for the final paper.








Almonds Case Analysis

Ellington, David

Park University





The paper evaluates the trends in area production of Almonds in Afghanistan. The case also evaluated the trends in consumption and export of almonds. The case also carried out a SWOT analysis to evaluate the production as well as export of almonds from Afghanistan. Besides, the company also aimed at the evaluation and identification of supply channels for the export of almonds. In addition, the study aimed at the identification of challenges encountered in the export of almonds. This analysis presents an analysis of the aforementioned issues regarding production and export of almonds in Afghanistan in line with the aforementioned objectives.


Afghanistan has one of the largest markets for the export of almonds in both Pakistan and India, meaning that they have an established production of the product. This product is mostly at Kabul market, where at least 80 percent of the total production by farmers is channeled for export. Besides, most of the almond is sold in regional markets meaning that the product has a well-established market in region. Besides the major competition comes from the United States in the international markets though, Afghanistan sells most of its products within the Asian region (Zai & Radhika, 2016). Besides, out of the total global production of almond, Afghanistan contributes less than two percent of the total production meaning that it is likely to face serious competition in the global market. However, the production of almonds in Afghanistan has taken an upward trend. Therefore, the analysis of the case is based on the given facts and to establish the actual position of Afghanistan in the production, consumption and export of almond to the global market.

Evaluation of the Case

Evaluation of the case shows that the production of almonds in Afghanistan has been rising over the years, which suggests the product has grown its importance both locally and in the international market. However, there is need to look into the factors such as pests and diseases, which are a threat to the production almonds in Afghanistan. This is depicted by analyzing the results that were obtained when applying the necessary control measures and when such measures were absent. Afghanistan need to employ the desired control strategies to ensure the growth of production of almonds remains consistent (Zai & Radhika, 2016).

Besides, an analysis of the domestic production and the quantity that is exported shows that only a small portion of the total production is exported, meaning that the production is still low. This shows that there is imbalance between local production and exports, which shows the country is yet to utilize its full capacity in production of the crop despite the milestones achieved in the production of the product. Besides, the difference in prices by the different producers of almond is an indication that there is still gap to be filled in the production of almond in the global market.

An evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of producing almonds shows that Afghanistan is well supported by a favorable production of the crop backed by a readily available local market. However, the production of the crop is faced with the challenge of high cost of production and lack of quality control mechanisms. This puts the production of the crop at higher risk given the competition in the global market.

Planned Solutions/ Changes

The aforementioned challenges facing almond production in Afghanistan. The producers at the local level are not well given the necessary extension advice about the harvest patterns to improve its production as well as storage to improve productivity and market of the product (Uddin, Gao & Mamun-Ur-Rashid, 2016). The production of almonds is lower than the prevailing demand in both local and the export market. The shortage can be solved through a cost reduction strategy aimed at reducing the number of middlemen to encourage the local farmers through improvements of prices. There is also a need to improve value addition processes to improve almond from its raw state to its final product. This will help product from Afghanistan compete favorably in the export market. The coordination of these strategic solutions will see an improvement in the production as well as well as the export of almonds because the barriers currently faced by the local farmers will be eliminated (Godara & Sial, 2019).


There seem to be a crisis in the production of almonds due to lack of control measures aimed at ensuring that the crop is provided with the necessary conditions to improve production. Extension services need to be to be stretched to the local farmers in order to encourage them through employing more extensions officers. This will help the farmers to deal with problems affecting productivity such as pests and diseases and also help them understand the climate patterns that will guide the farmers on the best times to harvest.

There is need to improve efforts aimed at the improvement of quality through ensuring value addition instead of taking the product to the marketing its low state. This is the reason why Afghanistan is still not able to enter in the global market. The Ministry of Agriculture need to collaborate with the extension officers, and farmers to find the best ideas of improving the quality of production.

The farmers need to be given subsidies in the production of crops to offset the high cost of production. This will not only encourage farmers but will also promote the quality of production. These recommendations will help improve the overall production of almonds and overcome the challenges that face its production.



Godara, R. S., & Sial, M. Q. (2019). Production and Marketing of Almond in Afghanistan: An Analysis. Our Heritage67(10), 345-356.

Uddin, E., Gao, Q., & Mamun-Ur-Rashid, M. D. (2016). Crop Farmers’ Willingness to Pay for Agricultural Extension Services in Bangladesh: Cases of Selected Villages in Two Important Agro-Ecological Zones. The Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension22(1), 43-60.

Zai, F. A., & Radhika, P. (2016). Production and export of almonds-a case study of Afghanistan. Journal of Research PJTSAU44(1/2), 98-102.

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